cartography n : the making of maps and charts [syn: mapmaking]
The creation of charts and maps
- Czech: kartografie
- Finnish: kartografia
- French: cartographie
- Hebrew: קרטוגרפיה (qart'ografia)
- Norwegian: kartografi
Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making representations of the Earth on a flat surface. Cartography combines science, aesthetics, and technical ability to create a balanced and readable representation that is capable of communicating information effectively and quickly.
One problem in creating maps is the simple reality that the surface of the Earth, a curved surface in three-dimensional space, must be represented in two dimensions as a flat surface. This necessarily entails some degree of distortion, which can be dealt with by utilizing projections that minimize distortion in certain areas. Furthermore, the Earth is not a regular sphere, but its shape is instead known as a geoid, which is a highly irregular but exactly knowable and calculable shape.
Maps of all scales have traditionally been drawn and made by hand, but the recent advent and spread of computers has revolutionized cartography. Most commercial-quality maps are now made with software that falls into one of three main types: CAD, GIS, and specialized illustration software.
Functioning as tools, maps communicate spatial information by making it visible. Spatial information is acquired from measurement of space and can be stored in a database, from which it can be extracted for a variety of purposes. Current trends in this field are moving away from analog methods of mapmaking and toward the creation of increasingly dynamic, interactive maps that can be manipulated digitally.
Cartographic representation involves the use of symbols and lines to illustrate geographic phenomena. This can aid in visualizing space in an abstract and portable format. The cartographic process rests on the premise that the world is measurable and that we can make reliable representations or models of that reality.
The earliest known map to date is a wall painting of the ancient Turkish city of Çatal Hüyük which has been dated to the late 7th millennium BCE. Other known maps of the ancient world include the Minoan “House of the Admiral” wall painting from c. 1600 BCE showing a seaside community in an oblique perspective, and an engraved map of the holy Babylonian city of Nippur, from the Kassite period (14th – 12th centuries BCE). The ancient Greeks and Romans created maps beginning with Anaximander in the 6th century BC. In ancient China, geographical literature spans back to the 5th century BC. The oldest extant Chinese maps come from the State of Qin, dated back to the 4th century BC during the Warring States era.
Early forms of cartography in India included legendary paintings; maps of locations described in Indian epic poetry, for example the Ramayana. Indian cartographic traditions also covered the locations of the Pole star, and other constellations of use.
Mappa mundi is the general term used to describe Medieval European maps of the world. Approximately 1,100 mappae mundi are known to have survived from the Middle Ages. Of these, some 900 are found illustrating manuscripts and the remainder exist as stand-alone documents (Woodward, p. 286).
In the Age of Exploration from the 15th century to the 17th century, cartographers both copied earlier maps (some of which had been passed down for centuries) and drew their own based on explorers' observations and new surveying techniques. The invention of the magnetic compass, telescope and sextant enabled increasing accuracy.
Due to the sheer physical difficulties inherent in cartography, map-makers frequently lifted material from earlier works without giving credit to the original cartographer. For example, one of the most famous early maps of North America is unofficially known as the Beaver Map, published in 1715 by Herman Moll. This map is an exact reproduction of a 1698 work by Nicolas de Fer. De Fer in turn had copied images that were first printed in books by Louis Hennepin, published in 1697, and François Du Creux, in 1664. By the 1700s, map-makers started to give credit to the original engraver by printing the phrase "After [the original cartographer]" on the work.
Technological changesIn cartography, technology has continually changed in order to meet the demands of new generations of mapmakers and map users. The first maps were manually constructed with brushes and parchment and therefore varied in quality and were limited in distribution. The advent of magnetic devices, such as the compass and much later magnetic storage devices, allowed for the creation of far more accurate maps and the ability to store and manipulate them digitally.
Advances in mechanical devices such as the printing press, quadrant and vernier allowed for the mass production of maps and the ability to make accurate reproductions from more accurate data. Optical technology, such as the telescope, sextant and other devices that use telescopes, allowed for accurate surveying of land and the ability of mapmakers and navigators to find their latitude by measuring angles to the North Star at night or the sun at noon.
Advances in photochemical technology, such as the lithographic and photochemical processes, have allowed for the creation of maps that have fine details, do not distort in shape and resist moisture and wear. This also eliminated the need for engraving which further shortened the time it takes to make and reproduce maps.
In the late 20th century and early 21st century advances in electronic technology led to a new revolution in cartography. Specifically, computer hardware devices such as computer screens, plotters, printers, scanners (remote and document) and analytic stereo plotters along with visualization, image processing, spatial analysis and database software, have democratized and greatly expanded the making of maps. The ability to superimpose spatially located variables onto existing maps created new uses for maps and new industries to explore and exploit these potentials. See also digital raster graphic.
General vs thematic cartographyIn understanding basic maps, the field of cartography can be divided into two general categories: general cartography and thematic cartography. General cartography involves those maps that are constructed for a general audience and thus contain a variety of features. General maps exhibit many reference and location systems and often are produced in a series. For example the 1:24,000 scale topographic maps of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are a standard as compared to the 1:50,000 scale Canadian maps. The government of the UK produces the classic 1:63,360 (1 inch to 1 mile) "Ordnance Survey" maps of the entire UK and with a range of correlated larger- and smaller-scale maps of great detail.
Thematic cartography involves maps of specific geographic themes oriented toward specific audiences. A couple of examples might be a dot map showing corn production in Indiana or a shaded area map of Ohio counties divided into numerical choropleth classes. As the volume of geographic data has exploded over the last century, thematic cartography has become increasingly useful and necessary to interpret spatial, cultural and social data.
An orienteering map combines both general and thematic cartography, designed for a very specific user community. The most prominent thematic element is shading that indicates degrees of difficulty of travel due to vegetation. The vegetation itself is not identified, merely classified by the difficulty ("fight") that it presents.
Topographic vs topologicalA topographic map is primarily concerned with the topographic description of a place, including (especially in the 20th century) the use of contour lines showing elevation. Terrain or relief can be shown in a variety of ways (see Cartographic relief depiction).
A topological map is a very general type of map, the kind you might sketch on a napkin. It often disregards scale and detail in the interest of clarity of communicating specific route or relational information.
Map designseealso Map projection
Arthur H. Robinson, an American cartographer influential in thematic cartography, stated that a map not properly designed "will be a cartographic failure." He also claimed, when considering all aspects of cartography, that "map design is perhaps the most complex." Robinson codified the mapmaker's understanding that a map must be designed foremost with consideration to the audience and its needs.
From the very beginning of mapmaking, maps "have been made for some particular purpose or set of purposes". The intent of the map should be illustrated in a manner in which the percipient acknowledges its purpose in a timely fashion. The term percipient refers to the person receiving information and was coined by Robinson. The principle of figure-ground refers to this notion of engaging the user by presenting a clear presentation, leaving no confusion concerning the purpose of the map. This will enhance the user’s experience and keep his attention. If the user is unable to identify what is being demonstrated in a reasonable fashion, the map may be regarded as useless. Making a meaningful map is the ultimate goal. MacEachren explains that a well designed map "is convincing because it implies authenticity" (1994, pp. 9). An interesting map will no doubt engage a reader. Information richness or a map that is multivariate shows relationships within the map. Showing several variables allows comparison, which adds to the meaningfulness of the map. This also generates hypothesis and stimulates ideas and perhaps further research. In order to convey the message of the map, the creator must design it in a manner which will aid the reader in the overall understanding of its purpose. The title of a map may provide the "needed link" necessary for communicating that message, but the overall design of the map fosters the manner in which the reader interprets it (Monmonier, 1993, pp. 93).
In the 21st century it is possible to find a map of virtually anything from the inner workings of the human body to the virtual worlds of cyberspace. Therefore there are now a huge variety of different styles and types of map - for example, one area which has evolved a specific and recognisable variation are those used by transit organisations to guide passengers, namely Urban rail and metro maps, many of which are loosely based on 45 degree angles as originally perfected by Harry Beck and George Dow.
Most maps use text to label places and for such things as a map title, legend, and other information. Maps are often made in specific languages, though names of places often differ between languages. So a map made in English may use the name Germany for that country, while a German map would use Deutschland, and French map Allemagne. A word that describes a place using a non-native terminology or language is referred to as an exonym.
In some cases the proper name is not clear. For example, the nation of Burma officially changed its name to Myanmar, but many nations do not recognize the ruling junta and continue to use Burma. Sometimes an official name change is resisted in other languages and the older name may remain in common use. Examples include the use of Saigon for Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok for Krung Thep, and Ivory Coast for Côte d'Ivoire.
Difficulties arise when transliteration or transcription between writing systems is required. National names tend to have well established names in other languages and writing systems, such as Russia for Росси́я, but for many placenames a system of transliteration or transcription is required. In transliteration the symbols of one language are represented by symbols in another. For example, the Cyrillic letter Р is traditionally written as R in the Latin alphabet. Systems exist for transliteration of Arabic, but the results may vary. For example, the Yemeni city of Mocha is written variously in English as Mocha, Al Mukha, al-Mukhā, Mocca, and Moka. Transliteration systems are based on relating written symbols to one another, while transcription is the attempt to spell in one language the phonetic sounds of another. Chinese writing is transformed into the Latin alphabet through the Pinyin phonetic transcription systems. Other systems were used in the past, such as Wade-Giles, resulting in the city being spelled Beijing on newer English maps and Peking on older ones.
Further difficulties arise when countries, especially former colonies, do not have a strong national geographic naming standard. In such cases cartographers may have to choose between various phonetic spellings of local names versus older imposed, sometimes resented, colonial names. Some counties have multiple official languages, resulting in multiple official placenames. For example, the capital of Belgium is both Brussel and Bruxelles. In Canada, English and French are official languages and places have names in both languages. British Columbia is also officially named la Colombie-Britannique. English maps rarely show the French names outside Quebec, which itself is spelled Québec in French.
The study of placenames is called toponymy, while that of the origin and historical usage of placenames as words is etymology.
The quality of a map’s design affects its reader’s ability to extract information, and to learn from the map. Cartographic symbology has been developed in an effort to portray the world accurately and effectively convey information to the map reader. A legend explains the pictorial language of the map known as its symbology. The title indicates the region the map portrays; the map image portrays the region and so on. Although every map element serves some purpose, convention only dictates inclusion of some elements while others are considered optional. A menu of map elements includes the neatline (border), compass rose or north arrow, overview map, scale bar, projection, and information about the map sources, accuracy and publication.
When examining a landscape, scale can be intuited from trees, houses and cars. Not so with a map. Even such a simple thing as a north arrow is crucial. It may seem obvious that the top of a map should point north but this might not be the case.
Color likewise is equally important. How the cartographer displays the data in different hues can greatly affect the understanding or feel of the map. Different intensities of hue portray different objectives the cartographer is attempting to get across to the audience. Today, personal computers can display up to 16 million distinct colors at a time even though the human eye can distinguish only a minimum number of these (Jeer, 1997). This fact allows for a multitude of color options for even for the most demanding maps. Moreover, computers can easily hatch patterns in colors to give even more options. This is very beneficial when symbolizing data in categories such as quintile and equal interval classifications.
Quantitative symbols give a visual measure of the relative size/importance/number that a symbol represents and to symbolize this data on a map there are two major classes of symbols used for portraying quantitative properties: Proportional symbols change their visual weight according to a quantitative property. These are appropriate for extensive statistics. Choropleth maps portray data collection areas (such as counties, or census tracts) with color. Using color this way, the darkness and intensity (or value) of the color is evaluated by the eye as a measure of intensity or concentration (Harvard Graduate School of Design, 2005).
A good map has to provide a compromise between portraying the items of interest (or themes) in the right place for the map scale used, against the need to annotate that item with text or a symbol, which takes up space on the map medium and very likely will cause some other item of interest to be displaced. The cartographer is thus constantly making judgements about what to include, what to leave out and what to show in a slightly incorrect place - because of the demands of the annotation. This issue assumes more importance as the scale of the map gets smaller (i.e the map shows a larger area), because relatively, the annotation on the map, takes up more space on the ground. A good example from the late 1980's was the Ordnance Survey's first digital maps, where the absolute positions of major roads shown at scales of 1:1250 and 1:2500 were sometimes a scale distance of hundreds of metres away from ground truth, when shown on digital maps at scales of 1:250000 and 1:625000, because of the overriding need to annotate the features.
In popular culture
- Lewis Carroll's Sylvie and Bruno Concluded tells of a fictional map that had "the scale of a mile to the mile."
- Jorge Luis Borges wrote a short story about a map made to 1:1 scale. It is an homage to Lewis Carroll's work mentioned above. The story, On Exactitude in Science, is located in a collection called, A Universal History of Infamy.
- J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle-earth is a renowned example of fictional cartography.
- Nicholas Crane's television series Map Man made originally for BBC Two, portrays cartography and cartographers.
- In the television series Arrested Development (TV Series), character Byron "Buster" Bluth has purportedly studied cartography extensively.
- Aerial photography
- Animated mapping
- Cartographic relief depiction
- Digital Cadastral DataBase
- Figure-ground in map design
- Four color theorem
- Geographic Information System (GIS)
- Here be dragons
- Japanese map symbols
- List of cartographers
- Map projection
- National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
- OpenStreetMap, a free project mapping the world's roads using GPS
- Pictorial maps
- Point of Beginning
- Sea level
- Terra incognita
- Belyea, B. 1992. Amerindian Maps: the Explorer as Translator. Journal of Historical Geography 18, no.3 :267-277.
- Bender, B. 1999. Subverting the Western Gaze: mapping alternative worlds. In The Archaeology and Anthropology of Landscape: Shaping your landscape (eds) P.J. Ucko & R. Layton. London: Routledge.
- Crawford, P.V. 1973. The perception of graduated squares as cartographic symbols. Cartographic Journal 10, no.2:85-88.
- The History of Cartography Volume 1: Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean.
- The History of Cartography Volume 2, Book 1: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies.
- The History of Cartography Volume 2, Book 2: Cartography in the Traditional East and Southeast Asian Societies.
- The History of Cartography Volume 2, Book 3: Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies. [Full text of the Introduction by David Woodward and G. Malcolm Lewis]
- The History of Cartography Volume 3 (in press, 2005): Cartography in the European Renaissance.
- The History of Cartography Volume 4 (edited by D. Graham Burnett, Matthew Edney, and Mary G. Sponberg Pedley with Founding Editor David Woodward): Cartography in the European Enlightenment.
- The History of Cartography Volume 5: Cartography in the Nineteenth Century
- The History of Cartography Volume 4: Cartography in the Twentieth Century
- Some Truth with Maps: A Primer on Symbolization & Design
- How to Lie with Maps
- Mapping It Out
- ESRI. 2004. ESRI Cartography: Capabilities and Trends. Redlands, CA. White Paper
- Harvard Graduate School of Design, 2005. http://www.gsd.harvard.edu/gis/manual/style/index.htm
- Jeer, S. 1997. Traditional Color Coding for Land Uses. American Planning Association. pp. 4-5
- Kent, A.J. 2005. "Aesthetics: A Lost Cause in Cartographic Theory?" The Cartographic Journal 42(2) pp.182-188
- Speaking of Graphics">http://www.datascope.be/sog.htm}}
- Imus, D. and Dunlavey, P. 2002. Back to the Drawing Board: Cartography vs the Digital Workflow. MT. Hood, Oregon.
- Oliver, J. 2007. The Paradox of Progress: Land Survey and the Making of Agrarian Society in Colonial British Columbia. In Contemporary and Historical Archaeology in Theory (eds) L. McAtackney, M. Palus & A. Piccini, pp. 31-38. Oxford: BAR, International Series 1677
- Olson, Judy M. 1975. Experience and the improvement of cartographic communication. Cartographic Journal 12, no. 2:94-108
- Phillips, R., De Lucia, A., and Skelton, A. 1975. Some Objective Tests of the Legibility of Relief Maps. The Cartographic Journal. 12, pp. 39-46
- Phillips, R. 1980. A Comparison of Color and Visual Texture as Codes for use as Area Symbols on Relief Maps. Ergonomics. 23, pp. 1117-1128.
- A History of Spaces: Cartographic Reason, Mapping, and the Geo-Coded World
- Rice, M., Jacobson, R., Jones. D. 2003. Object Size Discrimination and Non-visual Cartographic Symbolization. CA. pp. 1-12.
- Thematic Cartography and Geographic Visualization
- The Mapmakers
- "Map Imitations" in Detecting the Truth: Fakes, Forgeries and Trickery, a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada
- Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India
- CartoTalk - The discussion board for cartographers and anyone who designs or just loves maps. A very rich resource about cartography from those who practice the art every day.
- National Cartographic Center of Iran (NCC), Tehran
- British Cartographic Society
- Mapping History - a learning resource from the British Library
- Geography and Maps, an Illustrated Guide, by the staff of the US Library of Congress.
- The history of cartography at the School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Scotland
- Antique Maps by Carl Moreland and David Bannister - complete text of the book, with information both on mapmaking and on mapmakers, including short biographies of many cartographers
- North American Cartographic Information Society
- Society of Cartographerssupports the practising cartographer and encourages and maintains a high standard of cartographic illustration
- Concise Bibliography of the History of Cartography, Newberry Library
- UPCT : project aimed at creating a world map (a French map to begin) with voluntaries using GPS
- OpenStreetMap : project aimed squarely at creating and providing free geographic data such as street maps to anyone who wants them.
- GITTA - A webbased open content eLearning course with basic and intermediate cartography lessons based on the eLML XML framework.
See Maps for more links to modern and historical maps; however, most of the largest sites are listed at the sites linked below.
- Map history has extensive links to online map resources, including several large collections of images online and articles on the history of cartography.
- Odden's fascinating world of maps and mapping has a huge database of links on maps and cartography (under "Literature").
- Online map catalogs in North America and Europe lists some good places to search for online maps.
- A listing of over 5000 websites describing holdings of manuscripts, archives, rare books, historical photographs, and other primary sources for the research scholar
- MapRef A collection of map projections and reference systems for Europe - Zusammenstellung Europäischer Referenzsysteme und Kartenprojektionen
- UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library, web-site from the UN Environment Programme with hundreds of examples of thematic maps
- Kartografi-Indonesia A website displaying cartograms of various Indonesian-related data made by the Dept. Computational Sociology of Bandung Fe Institute.
- IslamicCartography A weblog on Islamic cartography by Tarek Kahlaoui a PhD student in the University of Pennsylvania
- Mapping Our World Oxfam's interactive site to help pupils develop geography skills through activities all about maps, globes and how we view the world
- Platial, The People's Atlas User-created maps
cartography in Afrikaans: Kartografie
cartography in Arabic: علم الخرائط
cartography in Asturian: Cartografía
cartography in Bulgarian: Картография
cartography in Catalan: Cartografia
cartography in Czech: Kartografie
cartography in Welsh: Cartograffeg
cartography in Danish: Kartografi
cartography in German: Kartografie
cartography in Modern Greek (1453-): Χαρτογραφία
cartography in Spanish: Cartografía
cartography in Esperanto: Kartografio
cartography in Persian: نقشهنگاری
cartography in French: Cartographie
cartography in Galician: Cartografía
cartography in Croatian: Kartografija
cartography in Indonesian: Kartografi
cartography in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Cartographia
cartography in Italian: Cartografia
cartography in Hebrew: קרטוגרפיה
cartography in Georgian: კარტოგრაფია
cartography in Latvian: Kartogrāfija
cartography in Luxembourgish: Kartographie
cartography in Lithuanian: Kartografija
cartography in Limburgan: Cartografie
cartography in Hungarian: Térképészet
cartography in Dutch: Cartografie
cartography in Japanese: 地図学
cartography in Norwegian: Kartografi
cartography in Norwegian Nynorsk: Kartografi
cartography in Occitan (post 1500): Cartografia
cartography in Polish: Kartografia
cartography in Portuguese: Cartografia
cartography in Romanian: Cartografie
cartography in Russian: Картография
cartography in Sicilian: Cartugrafìa
cartography in Simple English: Cartography
cartography in Slovak: Kartografia
cartography in Slovenian: Kartografija
cartography in Serbian: Картографија
cartography in Finnish: Kartografia
cartography in Swedish: Kartografi
cartography in Tamil: நிலப்படவரைவியல்
cartography in Vietnamese: Bản đồ học
cartography in Ukrainian: Картографія
cartography in Chinese: 地图学
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